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Natural Condition

Geographic location, topographic features and climate

15/11/2014 12:30
On administrative boundaries: bordering on Phu Tho province to the north; Thanh Hoa and Ninh Binh provinces to the south; the East borders Hanoi capital, Ha Nam; Son La and Thanh Hoa provinces in the west.

 1. Geographical location On the map of Vietnam, Hoa Binh province is located at the gateway of the Northwest region, with a natural area of 4,662.53 km2. In terms of geographical location, Hoa Binh is an intermediate buffer between the northern plain and the high mountains and forests of the Northwest, which is connected through National Road 6 (road) and river. Da (waterway) in the north. Hoa Binh borders Hanoi capital and plays an important role in the defense strategy of the region and the whole country.

2. Topographic characteristics Highlights of Hoa Binh's terrain are high mountains, complex divide, large slope and in the northwest - southeast direction, divided into 2 regions: Northwest mountainous region: including Mai Chau and Da Bac districts, extending to Tan Lac and Lac Son districts. The average high mountain does not exceed 1,000 m, the highest mountain is Pu Canh (1,373 m high). The average height of the mountain decreases gradually to the southeast such as: the mountain in Bac Son commune (Tan Lac district) is 1,136 m high, the mountain in Phu Luong commune (Lac Son district) is 934 m high, the mountain is in Tu Do commune (Lac district). Son) is 820 m high, ... Mountains in this region are made up of intrusive rocks, mainly granite and gabbro.

Low mountains and hills in the Southeast: including districts of Ky Son, Luong Son, Kim Boi, Lac Thuy and Yen Thuy. The topography of this region is alternating between sandy terrain and eroded terrain, so there are many caves and soil often dehydrated. The average high mountain is 200 - 500 m, divided into many discrete blocks. 

In terms of soil: Due to the topography and climate, Hoa Binh soil is divided into two distinct areas: The high mountainous area, including red yellow feralite soil, has a humus content of 6-7%; Due to the high humidity and low temperature, this area is very favorable for forestry development. Low hills and mountains, including red yellow feralite soil and secondary grass, of which poor soil accounts for 45-80%. The area along the Da River and other streams, due to the annual accretion of a thick layer of alluvium, is very convenient for growing rice and planting crops.

Rivers and streams: Due to the strongly divided terrain, rivers and streams in Hoa Binh are often steep and short. In the summer, there is a lot of rain in the summer, the water level of the rivers and streams rise and run fast, causing floods, affecting agriculture and transportation in the region. In winter, water shortage in the rivers and streams sharply decreases, many small streams dry up. Currently, Hoa Binh has 4 main river systems:

Da River: originating from the high mountains of Yunnan - China, flowing through the Northwest region, this section of the river is narrow, there are many rapids; to Hoa Binh province, the river bed is wide and the falls are greatly reduced, most notably Waterfall. The Da River flows on Hoa Binh land with a length of 103 km, reaching Hoa Binh town, the Da River flows back to the North.

Da river lake (Hoa Binh lake): with a capacity of 9.5 billion m3 of water, serving many economic and defense goals. In particular, the main task is to serve the generation of Hoa Binh Hydroelectric Plant - an important source of electricity supply for the whole country; In addition, it is responsible for cutting floods in the rainy season, regulating water against drought in the dry season for the Red River Delta.

Boi river: originates from Thuong Tien commune of Kim Boi district. The river is about 60 km long, flows through many limestone mountains in the south of Hoa Binh province and flows into Hoang Long river in Ninh Binh province.

Buoi River: originates from Tan Lac and Lac Son districts because Lo, Cai, Nhan Nghia, Yen Phu and many other small streams converge in Vu Ban town (Lac Son district) and then flow to Ninh province. Jar. The river is about 38 km long. The river bed is narrow, so in the rainy season it often causes floods on both sides.

Ma river: the section running through the boundary of Hoa Binh province is from Hang Kia commune to Van Mai commune of Mai Chau district. Most of the southern streams in Mai Chau district flow into the Ma River.

3. Climate: Hoa Binh is located in the tropical monsoon climate region with characteristics: hot, humid, with cold winters. The average temperature in 230C; average rainfall 1,800 mm / year; 85% relative humidity; average evaporation of 704 mm. The climate in the year is divided into two distinct seasons: Summer: starting in April, ending in September. Average temperature is over 250C, some days up to 430C. Average monthly rainfall is over 100 mm, the highest time is 680 mm (1985). Rain usually concentrates in July and August. Seasonal rainfall accounts for 85-90% of the annual rainfall. Winter season: starting from October of the previous year, ending in March of the following year. The average temperature in the month ranges from 16 - 200C. The day when the temperature is low is 30C. Rainfall in October - 20mm.

Due to the topographic characteristics, Hoa Binh also has northwest-style climates with dry, cold winters, hot and humid summers (in the Northwestern high mountains); climate of the Northern Delta is more moderate (in low mountainous areas).